UntilPro-test was an Oxford-based group campaigning in favour of continued animal testing and in support of scientific research. We aimed to dispel the irrational myths promoted by anti-vivisectionists and to encourage people to stand up for science and human progress.
Pseudoscience, misquotes and silly statistics from Morphine puts humans asleep but excites cats to Blood transfusions were delayed years by animal studies, are all debunked - with more to come. Download or view here 1.
One of the major arguments against testing drugs on animals is the example of the drug thalidomide, which caused birth defects. Thalidomide was introduced in and marketed as a sedative.
Within several years, its use had spread around the world and women began taking it to help combat the nausea associated with pregnancy. Inseveral physicians linked thalidomide with birth defects observed in their patients currently taking it. Almost immediately afterwards, physicians worldwide began confirming these results.
Soon after the discovery of the teratogenic effects became known, thalidomide was taken off the Pro animal testing research paper, but 15, children suffered disfiguring birth defects and many died. Thalidomide did initially pass safety tests in animals but this was because the proper tests were not performed: If a thorough battery of tests had been performed in animals, the teratogenic effects would have been caught.
Thalidomide was never approved for sale in the USA because the Food and Drug Administration felt that not enough testing had been carried out. After its withdrawal from the market, thalidomide was tested on pregnant animals and found to induce birth defects in mice, rats, hamsters, marmosets and baboons see original literature below.
If these tests on animals had been carried out, the disaster would have been averted. So the thalidomide example so beloved of anti-vivisectionists turns out to be an argument in favour of more animal testing, not less -- which is why it is now a legal requirement to test all drugs on pregnant animals.
It was the absence of rigorous animal testing that led to this human tragedy. Banning animal testing would create similar disasters on a staggeringly frequent basis. Vioxx was an anti-arthiritis drug withdrawn from sale in Its manufacturers, Merck, have lost one court cases alleging side-effects from this drug, and won two - so in a sense the jury is still out.
In any case, Vioxx was extensively tested in animals and humans in randomised placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials both before and after it was approved by over 70 regulatory agencies around the world.
Over half of them took Vioxx, many for over a year. The FDA estimated that it caused 88, toheart attacks, 30 to 40 per cent of which were fatal. The maximum number of fatal heart attacks is therefore 55, - out of 80, prescriptions.
As a fraction, this is extremely low 0.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under ashio-midori.com approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments or habitats. The History and Purpose of The Animal Rights Movement - As of today PETA is one group that is helping animals in barbaric situation like that of professional research laboratories. brain barrier (BBB), interact with central targets and precipitate an abuse liability potential. Thus, non-clinical testing should result in data derived from a robust, fundamentally sound set of studies.
This is not to rule out the seriousness of the alleged side-effects on those it affected, but rather to point out how rarely these side effects were produced.Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".
The term sample of behavior refers to an individual's performance on tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand. The samples of behavior that make up a paper-and-pencil test, the most common type of test, are a series of items.
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1. Introduction. Genotoxicity assessment is an essential component of the safety assessment of all types of substances, ranging from pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, pesticides, biocides, food additives, cosmetics ingredients, to veterinary drugs, relevant in the context of international legislations aiming at the protection of human and animal health.
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