Water abstraction Raw water untreated is collected from a surface water source such as an intake on a lake or a river or from a groundwater source such as a water well drawing from an underground aquifer within the watershed that provides the water resource. The raw water is transferred to the water purification facilities using uncovered aqueducts, covered tunnels or underground water pipes. Water treatment must occur before the product reaches the consumer and afterwards when it is discharged again. Water purification usually occurs close to the final delivery points to reduce pumping costs and the chances of the water becoming contaminated after treatment.
You will find ten articles about a variety of subjects, written by Dutch water professionals on the basis of thorough research. Repeated appeals and a personal approach have resulted in sufficient proposals for articles in order to enable the editorial board to make this selection. The board mainly looked at a clear relation with the daily practice in the water sector.
Research, results and findings must be new and produce articles which present new knowledge, insights and techniques with a view to a practical application. This edition also offers a wide range of subjects: The publication of Water Matters is made possible by prominent players in the Dutch water sector.
With the publication of Water Matters, the participating organizations wish to make new, applicable water knowledge accessible.
You can also read Water Matters in digital form at H2O-online www. This publication is also available as a digital magazine in the English language via the same website or via www. The English publication is partly made possible by the Netherlands Water Partnership NWPthe network of approximately collaborating public and private organizations in the area of water.
The articles in English can also be shared from the digital magazine at H2O-online. Furthermore, articles from previous editions can be found on the site. We hope you enjoy reading this edition. If you have any comments, please let us know via redactie h2owaternetwerk.
There is a sustainable solution, where precipitation excess during the winter period is utilized as optimally as possible by storing the water underground. In saline groundwater environments with a large water demand, such as the Westland, greenhouse horticulture uses rainwater as its primary water source.
However, the storage capacity in aboveground reservoirs is generally insufficient for effectively collecting all the rainwater from wet periods.
This brackish water extraction and concentrate disposal has the risk that the salination of the groundwater will be reinforced and is for that reason under pressure in terms of policy. In less saline areas, underground storage of winter precipitation excess offers a sustainable alternative.
The excess precipitation from greenhouse roofs is infiltrated and stored via wells in the underground. In periods of shortage this water is recovered. This technique is known by the name of aquifer storage and recovery ASR. In saline groundwater environments, such as the Westland, this technique can be applied to a moderate extent, because due to density differences the relatively light fresh infiltration water floats upwards during storage in the brackish aquifer.
The freshwater is therefore difficult to recover unmixed. In this article, we present a concept where ASR and desalination of brackish groundwater by means of Reverse Osmosis RO have been combined.
The set-up was tested at a tomato grower in the Westland in order to research the practical applicability. As a result, the excess rainwater of a total of 27 hectare of greenhouse roofs became available.
An ASR system was built in order to be able to infiltrate the rain water into a sand layer at a depth of 23 to 37 m, where the ambient groundwater was brackish approx. The ASR system was fed with the water that would otherwise be discharged unused from the rainwater reservoirs of the horticulturalist.
There was an attempt to keep these reservoirs at a filling degree of approx. Prior to infiltration, suspended solids were removed from the water using a slow sand filter.
The ASR system was designed to be able to recover a maximum of freshwater, despite upward floating and mixing. To this end, a number of adjustments have been introduced in relation to a simple ASR system see Figure 2: Water could be infiltrated in and recovered from the aquifer at three different depths; 2.What does a good thesis statement look like?
There is one big tip on writing a good essay almost every article on the web gives you. It’s to come up with a clear and specific thesis statement. A water supply system is analogous to the human circulatory system. The heart pumps blood through the arteries, veins, and capillaries to supply oxygen to all part of the body.
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ISSN /journal/water. Article. Improving Water Supply Systems for.. Master Thesis. PREFACE Water Matters: research with a view to a practical application. In front of you is the seventh edition of Water Matters, the knowledge magazine of the journal H 2 O. You will find ten articles about a variety of subjects, written by Dutch water professionals on the basis of thorough research.